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60 anniversary of the first article on artificial satellites
Relays (extraterrestrial Transmissions) of Arthur C. Clarke in the number of October of 1945 of the magazine Wireless World are fulfilled 60 years of the publication of the Extra article

Yes, it is the same Arthur C. Clarke (England, 1917) that has written 2001: a space odyssey, the aim of the childhood, Encounter with Branch and many other works of science fiction.

Its article of 1945 has turned out to be its more famous prediction. In him, Clarke proposed the putting into orbit of artificial satellites of geostationary communications. Then, its proposal was not taken in serious but twenty years later it became reality when the satellite Early IBRD (“madrugador”) of the Intelsat company was sent in April of 1965. This it was the first commercial satellite of communications put in orbit.

The circulated original proposal in deprived by Clarke in May of 1945 took the title The Space-Station: Its Applications Radio (“the space station: its applications for radio”). A copy of this one today is in the National Museum of the Air and the Space of the Smithsoniano Institute in Washington, D.C.

Back in 1945, Clarke combined the technologies of rockets, wireless communications and radar to imagine extraterrestrial a system based on orbital space stations that relayed signals of radio around the world. Only one dozen of years later, the launching of the Sputinik electrified to the world and a passage occurred towards the accomplishment of the vision of Clarke. Less than one decade later, was sent the satellite Early IBRD.

Just in time for the moon landing of Apollo 11, in July of 1969, Intelsat it completed a sequence of launchings that before placed satellites in the space on the three regions anticipated by Clarke almost 25 years. Those were these satellites that they transmitted in direct the “great passage for the humanity” of Neil Armstrong and that day Arthur C. Clarke was united to Walter Cronkite from the “global cabin of transmissions” to make commentaries on the mission and its importance.


What is the geostationary orbit or of Clarke?

The geostationary orbit also receives the name of Clarke Orbit since the British scientist was the first person in realizing of which this orbit would be useful for the satellites of telecommunications. This is an orbit directly over the terrestrial Equator, to about 35,900 kilometers on the mean sea level; to that height the objects take 24 hours in giving the return him to the Earth, reason why they seem to be fixed in the sky with respect to an Earth point.

Among others meteorological satellites of telecommunications and that are in that orbit, can be mentioned the European satellite Meteosat, the Japanese GMS and Americans GOES.


(17-10-05)







 
           
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